技术流ken

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apache优化配置–技术流ken

案例环境:

系统类型

IP地址

主机名

所需软件

Centos 6.5 64bit

192.168.100.150

www.linuxfan.cn

httpd-2.2.17.tar.gz

注:编译安装时的命令

./configure –prefix=/usr/local/httpd –enable-cgi –enable-rewrite –enable-so  –enable-deflate –enable-expires

 

一、apache优化之保持连接、网页传输压缩、页面缓存时间;

1.保持连接、长链接(keep-alive):

作用:HTTP协议是TCP的子协议,HTTP建立连接时需要先建立TCP连接,断开时也需要端口TCP连接,TCP的建立和断开消耗的资源通过HTTP 连接保持可以节约下来。对于 HTTP/1.1,尽量地保持客户端的TCP连接,通过一个TCP连接传送多个 HTTP 请求响应,对于客户端可以提高 50%以上的响应时间,对于服务器可以降低建立与关闭TCP连接时的资源消耗。

 

配置项:

keepalive ON|OFF

是否打开保持连接功能。根据网站的并发请求量决定是否打开,高并发时打开,并发量不高时可选择关闭。

keepalive timeout

一次TCP连接多次HTTP请求之间的最大间隔时间,两次HTTP请求超过此时间连接将会断开。

maxkeepaliverequestes

一次TCP连接能够传输的最大HTTP请求数量。

 

[root@www ~]# vi /usr/local/httpd/conf/extra/httpd-default.conf

16 KeepAlive On

23 MaxKeepAliveRequests 100

29 KeepAliveTimeout 20

:wq

[root@www ~]# sed -n ‘/httpd-default.conf/p’ /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf   ##查看

#Include conf/extra/httpd-default.conf

[root@www ~]# sed -i ‘/httpd-default.conf/s/^#//g’ /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf  ##去除注释

[root@www ~]# sed -n ‘/httpd-default.conf/p’ /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf  ##查看验证

Include conf/extra/httpd-default.conf

[root@www ~]# sed -i ’97s/^#//g’ /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

[root@www ~]# sed -i ‘s/www.example.com/www.linuxfan.cn/g’ /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

[root@www ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/apachectl start

 

访问抓包验证:

 

2.apache网页压缩:

作用:配置 Apache 的网页压缩功能,是使用 Gzip 压缩算法来对 Apache 服务器发布的网页内容进行压缩后再传输到客户端浏览器。通常在cpu有空闲,网站带宽占用高时,会启用压缩;

优势:

1)加快网页加载的速度,改善用户的浏览体验

2)降低网络传输带宽, 服务器节省流量

3)网页压缩有利于搜索引擎的抓取

方式:Apache 能实现网页压缩功能的模块有 mod_gzip 模块和 mod_deflate 模块

注意:编译安装时需要使用以下配置项;

–enable-deflate     ##启用deflate模块,注意必须安装依赖包“zlib-devel”

配置项:

AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/css text/xml text/javascript

对什么格式的内容启用压缩

DeflateCompressionLevel 9

压缩级别为9,范围是1-9,数字大压缩率高

SetOutputFilter DEFLATE

启用deflate压缩方式

 

[root@www ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/apachectl -D DUMP_MODULES |grep deflate

deflate_module (static)

Syntax OK

[root@www ~]# vi /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf ##在最后添加如下配置

AddOutputFilterByType DEFLATE text/html text/plain text/css text/xml text/javascript

DeflateCompressionLevel 9

SetOutputFilter DEFLATE

:wq

[root@www ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/apachectl start

访问并抓包验证:

 

3.apache页面缓存时间:

作用:通过 mod_expires 模块配置 Apache,使网页能在客户端浏览器缓存一段时间,以避免重复请求,减轻服务端工作压力。启用 mod_expires 模块后,会自动生成页面头部信息中的 Expires 标签和 CacheControl 标签,从而降低客户端的访问频率和次数,达到减少不必要的流量和增加访问速度的目的。

注意:编译安装时必须使用以下配置项

–enable-expires     ##启用网页缓存过期时间模块

配置项:

<IfModule mod_expires.c>

ExpiresActive On     ##启用页面缓存时间

ExpiresDefault “access plus 60 seconds”    ##设置默认缓存1分钟

</IfModule>

 

 

[root@www ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/apachectl -D DUMP_MODULES |grep expires

expires_module (static)

Syntax OK

[root@www ~]# vi /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf    ##在最后添加如下配置

<IfModule mod_expires.c>

ExpiresActive On

ExpiresDefault “access plus 60 seconds”

</IfModule>

 

清楚浏览器历史记录,重新访问测试:

 

二、apache优化隐藏版本号;

方式一:

[root@www ~]# vi /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf ##添加在末尾

ServerTokens Prod    ##显示最少的信息,默认是Full显示完整信息

ServerSignature Off    ##生成页面的页脚

访问测试验证:

 

方式二:

如果是源代码编译安装,还可以用修改源码编译的方法:进入 Apache 的源码目录下的 include 目录, 编辑 ap_release.h 这个文件如下变量,然后重新编译安装即可:

42 #define AP_SERVER_BASEVENDOR “linuxfan.cn Software Foundation”

43 #define AP_SERVER_BASEPROJECT “Miscrosoft-IIS”

44 #define AP_SERVER_BASEPRODUCT “Microsoft-IIS”

45

46 #define AP_SERVER_MAJORVERSION_NUMBER 6

47 #define AP_SERVER_MINORVERSION_NUMBER 6

48 #define AP_SERVER_PATCHLEVEL_NUMBER   6

 

三、apache优化之防盗链;

作用:防盗链就是防止别人盗用服务器中的图片、文件、视频等相关资源。运维人员可以通过apache提供rewrite模块进行优化。

配置项:

RewriteEngine ON

##打开网页重写功能

RewriteCond

##设置匹配规则

RewriteRule

##设置跳转动作

rewrite的规则:%{HTTP_REFERER} 浏览 header 中的链接字段,存放一个连接的 URL,代表是从哪个链接访问所需的网页。

!^

不以某个字段开头

.*$

以任意字符结尾

NC

不区分大小写

R

强制跳转

规则匹配:如果相应变量的值匹配所设置的规则,则逐条往下处理;如果不匹配,则后面的规则不再继续匹配。

配置实例:

[root@www ~]# vi /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

在<Directory “/usr/local/httpd/htdocs”> 区域中,添加:

RewriteEngine On    ##启用重写功能

RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://linuxfan.cn/.*$ [NC]

RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://linuxfan.cn$ [NC]

RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://www.linuxfan.cn/.*$ [NC]

RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://www.linuxfan.cn$ [NC]

RewriteRule .*\.(gif|jpg|png|swf)$ http://www.linuxfan.cn/error.html [R,NC]

</Directoy>

最终匹配结果为:第二、三、四、五行的信任站点,能够使用网站上的图片;处理信任站点以外的站点,如果访问或使用 http://www.linuxfan.cn 域名以外的 gif、 jpg、 swf结尾的文件将跳转到重定向页面。

案例:

1.案例环境:

系统类型

IP地址

主机名

所需软件

Centos 6.5 64bit

192.168.100.150

linuxfan

httpd-2.2.17.tar.gz

Centos 6.5 64bit

192.168.100.151

linuxren

httpd-2.2.17.tar.gz

 

2.安装配置linuxfan主机的httpd服务;

[root@linuxfan ~]# tar zxvf httpd-2.2.17.tar.gz -C /usr/src/

[root@linuxfan ~]# cd /usr/src/httpd-2.2.17/

[root@linuxfan httpd-2.2.17]#./configure –prefix=/usr/local/httpd –enable-cgi –enable-rewrite –enable-so && make && make install

[root@linuxfan httpd-2.2.17]# cd

[root@linuxfan ~]# sed -i ’97s/^#//g’ /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

[root@linuxfan ~]# sed -i ‘s/www.example.com/www.linuxfan.cn/g’ /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

[root@linuxfan ~]# cat <<END >/usr/local/httpd/htdocs/index.html

<html>

<head><title></title></head>

<body>

<h1>www.linufan.cn</h1>

<img src=”./linux.jpg” />

</body>

</html>

END

[root@linuxfan ~]# ls /usr/local/httpd/htdocs/

index.html  linux.jpg

[root@linuxfan ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/apachectl start

访问测试:

 

3.安装配置linuxren主机的httpd服务;

[root@linuxren ~]# tar zxvf httpd-2.2.17.tar.gz -C /usr/src/

[root@linuxren ~]# cd /usr/src/httpd-2.2.17/

[root@linuxren httpd-2.2.17]#./configure –prefix=/usr/local/httpd –enable-cgi –enable-rewrite –enable-so && make && make install

[root@linuxren httpd-2.2.17]# cd

[root@linuxren ~]# sed -i ’97s/^#//g’ /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

[root@linuxren ~]# sed -i ‘s/www.example.com/www.linuxren.cn/g’ /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

[root@linuxren ~]# cat <<END >/usr/local/httpd/htdocs/index.html

<html>

<head><title> </title></head>

<body>

<h1>www.linuxren.cn </h1>

<img src=”http://www.linuxfan.cn/linux.jpg” alt=”访问被拒绝了!对方设置了防盗链!” />

</body>

</html>

END

[root@linuxren ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/apachectl start

访问测试:

 

4.为linuxfan网站设置防盗链,防止linuxren网站盗用图片;

[root@linuxfan ~]# vi /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

132 <Directory “/usr/local/httpd/htdocs”>

133     RewriteEngine On

134     RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://linuxfan.cn/.*$  [NC]

135     RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://linuxfan.cn$  [NC]

136     RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://www.linuxfan.cn/.*$  [NC]

137     RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://www.linuxfan.cn$  [NC]

138     RewriteRule .*gif|jpg|png|swfgif|jpg|png|swf$ http://www.linuxfan.cn/error.html  [R,NC]

:wq

[root@linuxfan ~]# echo “deny” >>/usr/local/httpd/htdocs/error.html

[root@linuxfan ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/apachectl restart

访问验证:

 

四、apache的ab压力测试;

作用:Apache 附带了压力测试工具 ab,非常容易使用,并且完全可以模拟各种条件对 Web 服务器发起测试请求。在进行性能调整优化过程中,可用 ab 压力测试工具进行优化效果的测试。

语法:ab  -n 请求数总和  -c  并发用户数  网站网址

重要参数:

Time taken for tests ##表示所有这些请求被处理完成所花费的总时间

Failed requests ##表示失败的请求数量

Requests per second ##吞吐率,计算公式: Complete requests / Time taken for tests

Transfer rate ##表示这些请求在单位时间内从服务器获取的数据长度,计算公式:Total trnasferred/ Time taken for tests,这个统计很好的说明服务器的处理能力达到极限时,其出口宽带的需求量。

[root@linuxfan ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/ab -n 1000 -c 80 http://192.168.100.150/index.html

拓展:自行百度apache其他性能压力测试工具

 

五、apache 日志分析工具;

方式一:apachetop工具

作用:查看服务器的实时运行情况,比如哪些 URL 的访问量最大,服务器每秒的请求数,等等。apachetop 就是这样一个工具, 能够让你实时的监测 apache 服务器的运行状况。

 

[root@linuxfan ~]# wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-6.rep

[root@linuxfan ~]# yum -y install epel-release

[root@linuxfan ~]# yum -y install apachetop

[root@linuxfan ~]# apachetop -f /usr/local/httpd/logs/access_log

last hit: 06:14:54         atop runtime:  0 days, 00:00:05             06:14:55

All:            6 reqs (   3.0/sec)          0.0B (    0.0B/sec)       0.0B/req

2xx:    0 ( 0.0%) 3xx: 6 ( 100%) 4xx:     0 ( 0.0%) 5xx:     0 ( 0.0%)

R (  5s):       6 reqs (   1.2/sec)          0.0B (    0.0B/sec)       0.0B/req

2xx:    0 ( 0.0%) 3xx: 6 ( 100%) 4xx:     0 ( 0.0%) 5xx:     0 ( 0.0%)

 

REQS REQ/S    KB KB/S URL

3  1.50   0.0  0.0*/

3  1.50   0.0  0.0 /linux.jpg

 

方式二:awstats日志分析系统

作用:Awstats 软件是一个由perl语言所编写的免费强大的服务器的日志文件分析工具,显示你所有的网页/邮件/ FTP统计包括访问,访问者,页面,点击,高峰时间,操作系统,浏览器,搜索引擎,关键字。

 

[root@linuxfan ~]# tar zxvf awstats-7.3.tar.gz

[root@linuxfan ~]# mv awstats-7.3  /usr/local/awstats

[root@linuxfan ~]# cd  /usr/local/awstats/tools

[root@linuxfan tools]# chmod +x ./*

[root@linuxfan tools]# ./awstats_configure.pl

Do you want to continue setup from this NON standard directory [yN] ? Y

Config file path (‘none’ to skip web server setup):

> /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

Do you want me to setup Apache to write ‘combined’ log files [y/N] ? Y

Do you want me to build a new AWStats config/profile

file (required if first install) [y/N] ? Y

Your web site, virtual server or profile name:

> www.linuxfan.cn

Directory path to store config file(s) (Enter for default):   回车

Press ENTER to continue…    回车

Press ENTER to finish…    回车

[root@linuxfan tools]# cd

[root@linuxfan ~]# vi /etc/awstats/awstats.www.linuxfan.cn.conf

LogFile=”/usr/local/httpd/logs/access_log”    ##修改第 50 行

:wq

[root@linuxfan ~]# mkdir /var/lib/awstats

[root@linuxfan ~]# echo “*/5 * * * *  /usr/local/awstats/tools/awstats_updateall.pl now” >/var/spool/cron/root

[root@linuxfan ~]# /etc/init.d/crond restart

[root@linuxfan ~]# /usr/local/awstats/tools/awstats_updateall.pl now   ##执行首次更新,如若更新访问数据无法更新,出现日志格式问题,需要调整日志格式为combined格式,如若已经为该模式,可将日志文件删除,重启服务生成即可

[root@linuxfan ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/apachectl  restart

访问测试:

http://www.linuxfan.cn/awstats/awstats.pl?config=www.linuxfan.cn

 

六、apache访问控制;

作用:为apache服务提供的页面设置客户端访问权限,为某个组或者某个用户加密访问;

 

[root@linuxfan ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/htpasswd -c /usr/local/httpd/conf/htpasswd zs  ##添加admin用户,可以在两个路径中间添加-c是新建文件删除原文件

New password:       ##输入密码pwd@123

Re-type new password:        ##确认密码

Adding password for user zs

[root@linuxfan ~]# cat /usr/local/httpd/conf/htpasswd

zs:TpPLVJuXl0wsE

[root@linuxfan ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/htpasswd /usr/local/httpd/conf/htpasswd  ls

New password:    ##输入密码pwd@123

Re-type new password:        ##确认密码

Adding password for user ls

[root@linuxfan ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/htpasswd /usr/local/httpd/conf/htpasswd  ww

New password:       ##输入密码pwd@123

Re-type new password:            ##确认密码

Adding password for user ww

[root@linuxfan ~]# vi /usr/local/httpd/conf/htgroups   ##为授权用户加入组

mygroup: zs  ls    ##组名: 成员1  成员2

[root@linuxfan ~]# vim /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

421 <Directory “/usr/local/awstats/wwwroot”>

422     Options None

423     AllowOverride None

424     Order allow,deny

425     Allow from 192.168.100.110

426     AuthType Basic      ##定义认证的类型为Basic

427     AuthName “Log analysis system”     ##提示短语

428     AuthBasicProvider file     ##提供认证者为file

429     AuthUserFile /usr/local/httpd/conf/htpasswd     ##指定认证用户文件

430     AuthGroupFile /usr/local/httpd/conf/htgroups     ##指定认证组文件

431     Require group mygroup    ##设置允许访问的用户或者组,如果设置为所有用户改为“Require valid-user”即可,若设置单个用户为Require user 用户名 即可;

432 </Directory>

:wq

[root@linuxfan ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/apachectl  restart

访问测试:

http://www.linuxfan.cn/awstats/awstats.pl?config=www.linuxfan.cn

##输入用户测试,zs与ls能登录,ww不能登录

 

七、apache优化之日志分割;

作用:随着网站访问量的增加,访问日志中的信息会越来越多, Apache 默认访问日志access_log单个文件会越来越大,日志文件体积越大,信息都在一个文件中,查看及分析信息会及不方便。

实现方式:

1.利用 apache 自带的日志轮循程序 rotatelogs

ErrorLog “|rotatelogs 命令的绝对路径 -l logs/error_%Y%m%d_%H%M%S.log 秒数”

CustomLog “| rotatelogs 命令的绝对路径-l logs/access_%Y%m%d_%H%M%S.log 秒数”

combined

2.利用一个发展已经比较成熟的日志轮循工具 cronolog

ErrorLog “|cronolog 绝对路径 -l /usr/local/httpd/logs/error_%Y%m%d%H%M%S.log ”

CustomLog “|cronnolog绝对路径 -l /usr/local/httpd/logs/access_%Y%m%d%H%M%S.log” combined

3.利用定时任务和 shell 脚本做日志切割

 

方式一: 利用 apache 自带的日志轮循程序 rotatelogs日志分割:

[root@linuxfan ~]# vi /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf   ##10秒切割一次日志文件(切割日志时间频率可以自行改变,根据PV来决定,),-l选项是小写的L表示local time(本地时间)

216 CustomLog “|/usr/local/httpd/bin/rotatelogs -l /usr/local/httpd/logs/access_%Y%m%d%H%M%S.log  10” combined

:wq

[root@linuxfan ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/apachectl restart

[root@linuxfan ~]# ls /usr/local/httpd/logs/

access_20171205054810.log  error_log

access_20171205054820.log  httpd.pid

 

方式二:利用一个发展已经比较成熟的日志轮循工具 cronolog

[root@linuxfan ~]# tar xf cronolog-1.6.2.tar.gz -C /usr/src/

[root@linuxfan ~]# cd /usr/src/cronolog-1.6.2/

[root@linuxfan cronolog-1.6.2]# ./configure && make && make install

[root@linuxfan cronolog-1.6.2]# cd

[root@linuxfan ~]# which cronolog

/usr/local/sbin/cronolog

[root@linuxfan ~]# vi /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf    ##可以跟据文件名中的变量来设置分割的频率,Y表示四位年份、m表示月份、d表示月份中的天数

213 CustomLog “|/usr/sbin/cronolog /usr/local/httpd/logs/access_%Y%m%d.log”         combined

:wq

[root@linuxfan ~]# /usr/local/httpd/bin/apachectl  restart

[root@linuxfan ~]# ls /usr/local/httpd/logs/

access_20171206.log   access_log   error_log   httpd.pid

 

方式三:脚本完成(定期移动httpd日志文件,并且保存期限为30天):

[root@linuxfan ~]# vi /opt/cut_httpd_log.sh

#!/bin/bash

logpath=”/usr/local/httpd/logs”

datetime=$(date -d “-1 day” “+%Y%m%d”)26 / 27

[ -d $logpath/backup ] || mkdir $logpath/backup

mv $logpath/access_log $logpath/backup/access_log-$datetime

/usr/local/httpd/bin/apachectl graceful   ##

find $logpath/backup/ -mtime +30 | xargs rm –f

[root@linuxfan ~]# chmod +x /opt/cut_httpd_log.sh

[root@linuxfan ~]# echo “00 00 * * * /bin/bash /opt/cut_httpd_log.sh &> /dev/null” >>/var/spool/cron/root

[root@linuxfan ~]# service crond restart

 

日志合并:

可以将每个服务器每天的日志文件通过 rsync 下载到专门进行访问统计分析的服务器上进行合并。合并多个服务器的日志文件,例如: log1 log2 log3 并输出到 log_all 中的方法是:

sort -m -t ” ” -k 4 -o log_all access_log1 access_log2 access_log3

-m 使用 merge 优化算法

-t 指定排序的分割符

-k 4 指定排序时行中多列时,排序的依据列为哪列,表示根据时间进行排序

-o 表示将排序结果存放到指定的文件中

 

八、apache实现虚拟主机;

作用:在同一台服务器实现部署多个网站站点,节省资源;

实现方式:

1.不同IP,不同域名,相同端口;

2.相同IP,相同域名,不同端口;

3.相同IP,相同端口,不同域名;

 

方式一:不同IP,不同域名,相同端口;

[root@linuxfan ~]# ifconfig eth0:0 192.168.100.200

[root@linuxfan ~]# ip a |grep 192.168.100

inet 192.168.100.150/24 brd 192.168.100.255 scope global eth0

inet 192.168.100.200/24 brd 192.168.100.255 scope global secondary eth0:0

[root@linuxfan ~]# vi /usr/local/httpd/conf/httpd.conf

394 Include conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf

[root@linuxfan ~]# vi /usr/local/httpd/conf/extra/httpd-vhosts.conf

原文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/Richardlygo/article/details/82460264

8 thoughts on “apache优化配置–技术流ken

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