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parted分区大于2T大小的磁盘–技术流ken

在使用fdisk建立分区时,我们最大只能建立2TB大小的分区。如需建立超过2T的分区需要采用GPT磁盘模式。下文补充一下GPT和MBR的基础知识和分超过2T分区的方法。

 

MBR

1、MBR,该磁盘模式是我们常用的模式,英文全称为Master Boot Record,缩写:MBR,中文名称为主引导记录,又称为主引导扇区。

2、采用MBR型分区结构的硬盘(其磁盘卷标类型为MS-DOS),最多只能识别4个主要分区。所以对于一个采用此种分区结构的硬盘来说,想要得到4个以上的主要分区是不可能的。这里就需要引出扩展分区了。扩展分区也是主分区(Primary partition)的一种,但它与主分区的不同在于理论上可以划分为无数个逻辑分区,每一个逻辑分区都有一个和MBR结构类似的扩展引导记录(EBR)。在MBR分区表中最多4个主分区或者3个主分区+1个扩展分区,也就是说扩展分区只能有一个,然后可以再细分为多个逻辑分区。

3、在Linux系统中,硬盘分区命名为sda1-sda4或者hda1-hda4(其中a表示硬盘编号可能是a、b、c等等)。在MBR硬盘中,分区号1-4是主分区(或者扩展分区),逻辑分区号只能从5开始。 在MBR分区表中,一个分区最大的容量为2T,且每个分区的起始柱面必须在这个disk的前2T内。你有一个3T的硬盘,根据要求你至少要把它划分为2个分区,且最后一个分区的起始扇区要位于硬盘的前2T空间内。如果硬盘太大则必须改用GPT。

GPT

1、GPT,英文全称为GUID Partition Table,缩写:GPT,中文名称为全局唯一标识分区表。它是EFI(可扩展固件接口标准)的一部分,用来替代BIOS中的主引导记录分区表。

2、在MBR硬盘中,分区信息直接存储于主引导记录(MBR)中(主引导记录中还存储着系统的引导程序)。但在GPT硬盘中,分区表的位置信息储存在GPT头中。但出于兼容性考虑,硬盘的第一个扇区仍然用作MBR,之后才是GPT头。

 

 

GPT分区

 

第一步:使用parted进行分区

[root@ken ~]# parted /dev/sdb 

 

第二步:查看选择帮助信息

[root@ken ~]# parted /dev/sdb                                             
GNU Parted 3.1
Using /dev/sdb
Welcome to GNU Parted! Type 'help' to view a list of commands.
(parted) help                                                             
  align-check TYPE N                        check partition N for TYPE(min|opt) alignment
  help [COMMAND]                           print general help, or help on COMMAND
  mklabel,mktable LABEL-TYPE               create a new disklabel (partition table)
  mkpart PART-TYPE [FS-TYPE] START END     make a partition
  name NUMBER NAME                         name partition NUMBER as NAME
  print [devices|free|list,all|NUMBER]     display the partition table, available devices, free space, all found
        partitions, or a particular partition
  quit                                     exit program
  rescue START END                         rescue a lost partition near START and END
  rm NUMBER                                delete partition NUMBER
  select DEVICE                            choose the device to edit
  disk_set FLAG STATE                      change the FLAG on selected device
  disk_toggle [FLAG]                       toggle the state of FLAG on selected device
  set NUMBER FLAG STATE                    change the FLAG on partition NUMBER
  toggle [NUMBER [FLAG]]                   toggle the state of FLAG on partition NUMBER
  unit UNIT                                set the default unit to UNIT
  version                                  display the version number and copyright information of GNU Parted

 

第三步:开始创建分区

(parted) mklabel gpt         #将MBR磁盘格式化为GPT                                              
Warning: The existing disk label on /dev/sdb will be destroyed and all data on this disk will be lost. Do you want to
continue?
Yes/No? yes                                                               
(parted) mkpart  /dev/sdb1          #创建分区                                       
File system type?  [ext2]? xfs       #指定文件类型                                   
Start? 0                            #指定从0开始                                       
End? 5G                              #分区结束位置                           
Warning: The resulting partition is not properly aligned for best performance.
Ignore/Cancel? Ignore   #选择忽略
(parted) print                  #打印分区信息                                        
Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name       Flags
 1      17.4kB  5000MB  5000MB  xfs          /dev/sdb1

(parted) mkpart /dev/sdb2            #创建第二个分区                                     
File system type?  [ext2]? xfs                                            
Start? 5G                                                                 
End? 10G
(parted) print                                                            
Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name       Flags
 1      17.4kB  5000MB  5000MB  xfs          /dev/sdb1
 2      5001MB  10.0GB  5000MB  xfs          /dev/sdb2

(parted) mkpart                         #创建第三个分区                                  
Partition name?  []? /dev/sdb10               #指定分区编号是/dev/sdb10,但是会按照顺序排序                          
File system type?  [ext2]? xfs                                            
Start? 10G                                                                
End? 11g                                                                  
(parted) print
Model: VMware, VMware Virtual S (scsi)
Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5GB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: gpt
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start   End     Size    File system  Name        Flags
 1      17.4kB  5000MB  5000MB  xfs          /dev/sdb1
 2      5001MB  10.0GB  5000MB  xfs          /dev/sdb2
 3      10.0GB  11.0GB  999MB                /dev/sdb10

(parted) quit
Information: You may need to update /etc/fstab.

 

 

第四步:查看识别到的磁盘分区

[root@ken ~]# ls /dev/sdb*                                                
/dev/sdb  /dev/sdb1  /dev/sdb2  /dev/sdb3

 

注意:上面创建的/dev/sdb10被有顺序的识别为/dev/sdb3

 

第五步:格式化分区并使用

[root@ken ~]# mkfs.xfs /dev/sdb3
[root@ken ~]# mount /dev/sdb3 /ken3
[root@ken ~]# df -h
Filesystem           Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/cl-root   17G  6.7G   11G  40% /
devtmpfs             478M     0  478M   0% /dev
tmpfs                489M     0  489M   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs                489M  6.7M  482M   2% /run
tmpfs                489M     0  489M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1           1014M  139M  876M  14% /boot
tmpfs                 98M     0   98M   0% /run/user/0
/dev/sdb3            950M   33M  918M   4% /ken3

 

 

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